When Sicilian poets interacted with the Provencal troubadours, they found the perfect verse form for their utterances of the heart: lyric poetry. Beginning with Cielo of Alcamo, the court poets developed a series of lyrical styles that used standard vernacular to make art of poetry. They were aided by Frederick II, who required poets to stick to one subject: courtly love. Between and , court poets wrote hundreds of love poems.
They worked with a beautiful derivative of canso, the canzone, which became the most popular verse form until Giacomo de Lentini further developed it into the sonnet. He introduced the forms to a countryside attuned to lyrical and narrative poetry by the great Geoffrey Chaucer, whose experiences with latter Provencal poets influenced the style credited with modernizing English literature. Spenser and Shakespeare took the Petrarchan form that Wyatt introduced to the literary landscape and added their individual touches, forming the three principal sonnet styles: Petrarchan, Spenserian, and Shakespearean.
The socially open Elizabethan era enabled poets to write about humanistic as well as religious subjects. The dramatic rise in academic study and literacy during the late 16th century created large audiences for the new poetry, which was also introduced into the educational system. In many ways, the Elizabethan era more closely resembled the expressionism of the Ancient Greeks than the Sicilian and Italian Renaissance schools from which it derived its base poetry.
A century after the height of the Elizabethan era, a subtler, provocative lyric poetry movement crept through an English literary countryside that sought greater depth in its verse. Poets shared an interest in metaphysical subjects and practiced similar means of investigating them. Beginning with John Dryden, the metaphysical movement was a loosely woven string of poetic works that continued through the often-bellicose 18th century, and concluded when William Blake bridged the gap between metaphysical and romantic poetry.
The Romantics felt that the relationships we build with nature and others defines our lives. In between, the group of poets lived as mighty flames of poetic production who were extinguished well before their time. While history did not treat Robert Southey so kindly, Byron considered him a key member of the movement. Shelley died at 30, while Byron succumbed at Ironically, the poets held distinctly different religious beliefs and led divergent lifestyles.
Blake was a Christian who followed the teachings of Emmanuel Swedenbourg who also influenced Goethe. Wordsworth was a naturalist, Byron urbane, Keats a free spirit, Shelley an atheist, and Coleridge a card-carrying member of the Church of England. The romantics made nature even more central to their work than the metaphysical poets, treating it as an elusive metaphor in their work. They sought a freer, more personal expression of passion, pathos, and personal feelings, and challenged their readers to open their minds and imaginations.
They anticipated and planted the seeds for free verse, transcendentalism, the Beat movement, and countless other artistic, musical, and poetic expressions. The Romantic movement would have likely extended further into the 19th century, but the premature deaths of the younger poets, followed in by the death of their elderly German admirer, Goethe, brought the period to an end. Of all the great communities and movements, the American Transcendentalists might be the first to have an intentional, chronicled starting date: September 8, , when a group of prominent New England intellectuals led by poet-philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson met at the Transcendental Club in Boston.
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A nation of men will for the first time exist, because each believes himself inspired by the Divine Soul which also inspires all men. They created a shadow society that espoused utopian values, spiritual exploration, and full development of the arts. They revolted against a culture they thought was becoming too puritanical, and an educational system they thought overly intellectual. They even had a commune, Brook Farm. These sentiments informed their gatherings, discussions, public meetings, essays, and poetry.
A number of great authors, poets, artists, social leaders, and intellectuals called themselves Transcendentalists. The Beats formed from a wide variety of characters and interests, but were linked by a common thread: a desire to live life as they defined it. The mixture of academia, be-bop jazz, the liberating free verse of William Carlos Williams, and the influence of budding author Jack Kerouac who coined the term "Beat Generation" in at a meeting with Allen Ginsberg, Herbert Huncke, and William S.
Another major contributor was former New York poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, who owned and operated City Lights bookstore, which in the s sold books that were banned by the U. Justice Department. He published Howl , thus creating a legacy as the greatest publisher and distributor of Beat literature.
Poetry through the ages Webexhibits. Feeding creative explosions. Poetic communities launched social and political discourse, and are vital to working poets. Stepping into community. The Inquisition doomed the Provencal movement in the 13th century, and most troubadours fled to Spain and Italy. Provencal literature 11th to 13th centuries Like a giant iron cloud, the popes of the Holy Roman Empire — the purveyors of the Middle Ages — clamped down and extinguished creative and artistic expression. Frederick II required poets to write about courtly love, and hundreds of beautiful canzone were written between and The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well.
His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author. In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres.
A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics. Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works. Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry , but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest.
Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed of compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads , and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings , once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales.
Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings , states of mind , and perceptions. Vincent Millay. Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature.
This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, some notable epics have continued to be written.
Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros. Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal 's satires.
The same is true of the English satirical tradition. An elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter elegiac meter , commonly describes a poem of mourning. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry.
The fable is an ancient literary genre , often though not invariably set in verse. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson a " moral ". Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns.
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Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying, sometimes related forms in many cultures. Greek tragedy in verse dates to the 6th century B. Speculative poetry, also known as fantastic poetry of which weird or macabre poetry is a major sub-classification , is a poetic genre which deals thematically with subjects which are "beyond reality", whether via extrapolation as in science fiction or via weird and horrific themes as in horror fiction. Such poetry appears regularly in modern science fiction and horror fiction magazines.
Edgar Allan Poe is sometimes seen as the "father of speculative poetry". Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story a. Latin American poets of the 20th century who wrote prose poems include Octavio Paz and Giannina Braschi  . Light poetry, or light verse, is poetry that attempts to be humorous. Poems considered "light" are usually brief, and can be on a frivolous or serious subject, and often feature word play , including puns , adventurous rhyme and heavy alliteration.
Although a few free verse poets have excelled at light verse outside the formal verse tradition, light verse in English usually obeys at least some formal conventions. Common forms include the limerick , the clerihew , and the double dactyl. While light poetry is sometimes condemned as doggerel , or thought of as poetry composed casually, humor often makes a serious point in a subtle or subversive way.
Many of the most renowned "serious" poets have also excelled at light verse. Kennedy , Willard R. Espy , and Wendy Cope. Slam poetry is a genre, that originated in in Chicago , Illinois , when Marc Kelly Smith organized the first slam. Slam performers comment emotively, aloud before an audience, on personal, social, or other matters.
It focuses on the aesthetics of word play, intonation, and voice inflection. Slam poetry is often competitive, at dedicated " poetry slam " contests. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 23 June This article is about the art form. For other uses, see Poetry disambiguation. For other uses, see Poem disambiguation , Poems disambiguation , and Poetic disambiguation. Main articles: History of poetry and Literary theory. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Meter poetry. Main articles: Timing linguistics , tone linguistics , and Pitch accent. Main article: Scansion. Main articles: Rhyme , Alliterative verse , and Assonance.
Main article: Rhyme scheme. Main article: Line poetry. Main article: Visual poetry. Main article: Poetic diction. See also: Category: Poetic form. Main article: Sonnet. Main article: Shi poetry. Main article: Villanelle. Main article: Limerick poetry. Main article: Tanka. Main article: Haiku. Main article: Thai poetry. Main article: Ode. Main article: Ghazal. Main article: Narrative poetry. Main article: Lyric poetry. Main article: Epic poetry. Main article: Elegy. Main article: Fable. Main article: Speculative poetry. Main article: Prose poetry. Main article: Light poetry. Main article: Poetry slam.
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