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This information helps us design a better experience for all users. To learn more about cookies, please see our cookie policy. To learn more about how we use and protect your data, please see our privacy policy. We want your feedback! Click here. Ristine Author Allen Pergament Author of introduction, etc. Ristine Author Ristine Author Robert J. South Boston. Anthony Mitchell Sammarco. Along the Delaware River. Richard C. Virginia Beach in Vintage Postcards. Alpheus J. Walking Queens.

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Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Amusement piers offered vaudeville, band concerts, thrill rides, diving horses, fishnet hauls, and more. Visitors stayed in grand hotels, among the largest and finest in the world. Through more than postcard images, the amazing spirit of this historic resort town is revealed.

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How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot. Close Report a review At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. Would you like us to take another look at this review? The need for powerful navies had grown in proportion to the expanding imperialist ambitions of European nations.

The defeat of the antiquated Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay at the hands of the Americans in , and the destruction of the Russian Fleet by the newer Japanese Navy in , demonstrated that modernization was imperative if empires were to be secured. These wars and the sudden race to construct larger and better armed ships inspired great public interest in warships, and nearly every craft afloat from every nation found its way onto a postcard. As the Great White Fleet made its voyage around the world many postcards were published not only of the squadron, but all their domestic and foreign ports of call.

Navel subjects had already been a growing genre for postcard publishers for it was attracting many men into card collecting, a hobby that had been originally dominated by women. Ships have been carrying United States mail since , and even mail arriving from overseas on ocean liners was transferred to smaller mail boats when they stopped for inspection at quarantine stations in the years between and Once on land, all this mail was carted off to a post office for processing. An exception was made to this procedure by the Congressional Act of May 27th, , which authorized the U.

Navy to establish post offices aboard their vessels so seamen would always have a reliable method of sending mail home.

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One month latter the battleship U. Illinois joined the Great White Fleet carrying the first naval post office capable of canceling letters and postcards. Within these cancels are the names of the United States Ships they originated from. The ability of seamen to have access to a post office not only expanded the use of postcards but increased the demand for naval subjects. Most postcards with ship cancels are dated between and A number of photographers were given official status to work aboard ships, and they produced and sold real photo postcards.

At the beginning of the 20th century, railways, newspapers, and the telegraph had united Europe more than ever before. Even so, the growth of nationalism in the previous century had created deep cultural and ethnic divides, and there were many small pockets of unique identities within single nations. While there was constant hostility between some of these groups struggling to preserve their own identity, the differences between most were nothing more than friendly rivalries.

These differences were exploited by European postcard publishers in a number of distinct ways, but they all fall under the category of types. Customs and rituals were not always easy to capture in a still image, so most cards present people posing in their traditional local dress. Although most of these cards were generally neutral, some take on political overtones.

Internal divisions may be shown as a celebration of diversity, while groups residing just over the border may be presented in disparaging ways. While the recognition of cultural differences on cards could be used to unite a nation by showing respect for diversity, these types of cards could also be used by ethnic minorities as a display of pride amidst overbearing nationalistic urges of the majority or even as a symbol of defiance against a real or perceived foreign authority when open rebellion was not possible.

As Europeans colonized the world, their businessmen, soldiers, and civil servants that found themselves in foreign lands sought to share the unfamiliar sights they encountered with their families back home. Picture postcards not only fulfilled this demand, they provided imagery for a public that was starved for information from the far-flung regions of the world. Many of these cards featuring native peoples can also be categorized under the theme of types, but they are far different from those displaying their European counterparts. While depictions of Laplanders or Balkan Muslims may have fell outside of the European norm, those that shared Western culture were expected to be shown with respect.

Differences may be played up to generate sales, but in the end white Europeans are all one in the same. Real differences were reserved for those residing in foreign lands where they take on the role of the exotic. The term exotic can be applied to any place, culture, or people different from oneself, rendering its definition fairly relative.

Their purpose is to act as a foil to the West so that definition and identity can be formed through the contrast. While that which is different will often stimulate a natural curiosity, presenting it in exotic terms is one way of creating a safe mastery over it. Here real differences can also be combined with Western fantasies so that forbidden narratives can now be displayed with foreign actors. The practice of portraying a foreign land or people as exotic was nothing new; it was common practice among artists for ages, for the more novel a place is found to be, the more interest it will draw.

The most common example is in Orientalism, which still taints Western views of the Middle-East to this day. While American publishers produced cards of its own native peoples, they were perceived of as a dying race and could be afforded a presentation in a more positive light than Europeans depicted foreigners. This did not come from respect but a desire to match images with prevalent romantic fantasies so more sales could be made. Americans came to find more interest in the exotic after the United States began to seize new overseas possessions of its own.

These cards look little different from their European counterparts as they were produced for the same reasons. While many of the scenes shown on these cards might capture true customs, they are presented in ways that no American family would ever be subject to. People that are presented as exotic never see themselves in those terms. While this relationship is quite clear between the people of Europe and their colonies, there is a bit of irony in American tourists buying cards of Europeans posing in their native costumes for their exotic flavor. Though less common, some European publishers also added images of Americans to their gallery of types.

While nearly all postcards were produced for a white middle class, and they reflect the tastes of this audience, the concept of the other could be projected on nearly anyone if the need arose. While some of these cards were made in jest, the true depth of these divisions would soon be exploited in propaganda after the Great War broke out.

While voyeurism is usually associated with pathology, there is an argument to be made that all our interests into the lives of strangers, whether it is through the form of books, movies, or even postcards is a type of voyeurism. Some of this behavior may in fact be an inescapable part of our evolutionary heritage.

From the stand point of our visually saturated society, it is difficult to comprehend the appeal that the sudden influx of postcard imagery had a hundred years ago. For many it was their first contact with a world outside of their own isolated community. In many ways the images we seek out, or those that are provided for us, are not snippets of reality, but a means of creating standardized precepts that can provide a safe barrier between the viewer and the subject.

Postcards are attractive because they provide the necessary distance for the observer to feel safe from the object of desire. By limiting viewpoints and reducing them to objects of interest, ethnic people become as two dimensional as the cards they are printed on. Those from other cultures could also be used to provide a socially acceptable outlet for erotic fantasies as they could be publicly presented in ways that no proper Westerner could ever be.

Beaches of the late 19th century were usually sexually segregated even though there was little flesh to see. Few women dared stray from the secure grip of bathing lines that extended out into the water in fear of drowning while being weighted down in layers of heavy wet fabric. While the trend toward covering less and less flesh continued, its progress was much slower than implied by the postcards of the age.

The swimsuit styles displayed on cards were often based on costumes of the burlesque theater rather than anything that could be found at the shore. Postcards continually influenced fashion trends, but the actual styles available to the consumer would not catch up for decades. As they tended to be twenty years ahead of what was considered socially acceptable. Many small town newspapers could not afford to include illustrations even after the new halftone printing process was introduced.

This gap was largely filled by postcard publishers, but only stories with long standing interest could be covered because of the long lag time in the printing process. Most news events were captured by local photographers who could quickly transform their work into real photo postcards that might be sold soon afterwards if not on the same day while interest was fresh. Real photo postcards ended up capturing many of the non-picturesque social concerns of the day, along with dramatic events such as fires, floods, and shipwrecks. These photos however have an appeal well beyond documentation, as there is also a strong voyeuristic connection to violence.

The tragedy of others demands our gaze, and a whole genre of disaster postcards emerged from this compulsive desire. As more newspapers and magazines took on the responsibility of printing this type of imagery, postcards began to confine themselves to more tourist oriented subjects. Decorative metal storage boxes and finely decorated albums of all kinds flooded into the market.

Many clever devices were also made for the commercial display of postcards. The most enduring of all of them has been the revolving metal card rack, invented by E. Dail in It allowed for the self-service dispensing of merchandise while taking up less space than conventional wall racks. Dail managed to sell 5, racks in the first nine months of production. A rival to the rack was introduced from Europe in in the form of a card vending machine. While these machines and all subsequent innovations have come to pass, it is the simple basic low tech design of the postcard rack that has outlasted all other fads over time.

While they are rarely the subject of postcards, these racks can be found in the background of many different types of cards. Publishers would sometimes add tinseling to stocks of slow selling or monochrome cards in the hope of increasing sales. Silver was traditionally used, but as it grew too expensive, cheaper substitutes were found in a variety of colors and textures. Kits with glue pens were eventually marketed to the public that allowed tinsel to be added to postcards at home.

The U. Post Office Department considered these cards hazardous as clerks often cut themselves, and began requiring that they be mailed in envelopes. It reached the point where twenty thousand tinseled cards a day were sent to the Dead Letter Office for want of a cover. Tinseling is still widely used on folded greeting cards. To gain an edge on competition, publishers often designed postcards outside of the expected norms.

Some used flexography to print on unusual substances such as wood, leather or metal; others were die cut into strange shapes or puzzles. Images of volcanoes were charred on the edges while other images were adorned with delicate embroideries of silk. Windows were colored with metallic paints to imitate the passage of light while others were die cut so they could sandwich transparencies.

Many, known as mechanicals had moveable parts. Objects like coins, feathers, and even real hair were pasted on, and some cards began to make sounds. Many of these cards were so delicate it was necessary to mail them in envelopes for protection. Novelty cards still exist today but they are rarely as creative as those made at this time. Postcards were usually printed in quantities of at a time.

For large contracts the printer might hold cards in storage for the publisher, sending them out in lots bit by bit as requested but this was rare. Most printers only produced small quantities to satisfy immediate demand, but some cards turned out to be more popular than others requiring their reprinting a number of times. Whenever this was done, a new printing plate was created, which could never exactly duplicating all the characteristics of the original image.

The most common differences to be found are in the sky and in coloration. Between poor exposure latitude and the inability of most film to capture anything more than the blue spectrum of light, the sky in photographs was often very light to completely washed out forcing a retoucher to draw features in.

When an image was later remade there was usually nothing on the negative to refer to, so clouds were drawn in differently each time. While the customer would sometimes request specific colors, they were most often made up by a retoucher or his manager. Again these qualities were rarely ever duplicated and can vary wildly between reprints. There were many other factors that created variations in postcards as well. After postal regulations allowed for divided back cards, many early cards that had been printed with a writing tab were reissued as full frontal bleeds.

Cars and people on older images were sometimes removed or changed to match more current fashions. The images typically made from large format negatives needed to be cropped down to postcard size during contact printing, and when reprinted the compositions were almost always cropped differently. Sometimes the negative was just taken to a different printer that used a different technique in production.

Since it was difficult to photograph in low light many night scenes on cards used the same negative as the midday version; they were only printed in darker colors with a moon added in for effect. Of course some variations were printed to give an old image a new look so the same customers might be enticed or even tricked into buying the same image twice. Others printed variations in an attempt to disguise stolen images protected by copyright laws.

In later years, some publishers just reprinted old negatives to save money. This can all be confusing when attempting to date a postcard. See the Guide to Postcard Variations in the Guide section of this website for more information on variations. With millions of different images produced, it was inevitable that printing mistakes were made. Colors printed out of registration with one another were probably the most common of all errors. This is usually a sign of poor workmanship and oversight because this problem appears more often on cheaply made cards of three colors than with twenty color cards from fine printing houses.

The second most common error to be found on cards is in spelling, which can be carried further to include grammar. While these errors could occur anywhere, they are most prevalent when English text was set by German printers who did not understand the language but only copied what they saw.

Sometimes foreign printers lost the entire concept behind a title and mangled their meaning.