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Henry, Sue. Anthony Award-winning Henry's character, champion sled-dog racer Jessie Arnold, is testing herself in the thousand-mile Yukon Quest race, which follows the old mail trail from Whitehorse to Fairbanks, when one of the other racers is kidnapped and held for ransom. John Strohmeyer, author of Extreme Conditions: Big Oil and the Transformation of Alaska describes this novel: "This fast-paced mystery is a good read with a valuable bonus.

It offers a rare insight into the oldest of North American cultures. Landers, Gunnard. Eskimo Money Minocqua, Wis. Box , Minocqua, WI , An outdoor adventure, Eskimo Money is based on actual undercover operations conducted in Alaska in efforts to discontinue the slaughter of walrus and the illegal trade in ivory.

Lane, Christopher. Inupiat police officer Ray Attla joins two buddies for a three-day caribou hunt in the Alaskan Bush country. But while fishing, the trio pulls in the remains of a human head. Masterton, Graham. Snowman Sutton : Severn House Pub. It's a vengeful Inuit spirit who was promised Jack's soul by his dad in exchange for leading him to safety from a crisis-strewn Alaska expedition, only to see the old man renege on the deal" from Kirkus Reviews. Otte, Marc. Two Deputy United States Marshals and fellow Mormons take a boy under their wings and plan a fishing trip to a remote Alaska lodge.

This seems to be just the thing to take the boy's mind off his murdered father, but their path takes a potentially deadly turn. The author lives in Alaska with his family.

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Pollen, Michael R. The author explains that, "This story weaves anthropology, Alaskan history, and contemporary science fiction in an entertaining tale that will lift the reader's spirits. Rogers, Betsy. Left just before her marriage by her ex-fiance, Ashley has burned her bridges behind in Seattle to come to work for the summer as the cook at a salmon cannery on Eagle Island in Alaska.

Rust, Megan Mallory. But when police refuse to look into the matter, Taylor investigates--and finds herself caught in a blizzard of dead-end leads. Stabenow, Dana. Putnam's Sons, pp. Kirkus Reviews says, "It's a lucky thing that Kate Shugak is, as her sweetie Jack Morgan points out, a Renaissance woman who can shoot, guide, survive in the Alaskan bush, and bring murderers to justice, since she'll need all those skills and more to handle the big-game hunting party George Perry is taking to Taiga Lodge.

When the bodies of a local family are found adrift at sea, horribly murdered, Alaska State Trooper Liam Campbell is drawn straight into the heart of a family scandal involving adultery, tribal taboos, and forbidden romance. Tillion, Diana. History and biography worked into a novel about the management of North Pacific fisheries in the s and s.

Tower, Elizabeth A. Presents a picture of the Aleut community of Unalaska-Dutch Harbor during the s through the eyes of two young men: a Japanese-American pilot searching for his Aleut mother and an Aleut orphan seeking to reestablish contact with his family. Adult Non-fiction. Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. Focusing on partnership development at local, regional, and state levels, this plan reflects progress in establishing treatment outcomes and raising awareness in a mission to reduce the devastating consequences of substance abuse.

Alaska's first state boating handbook provides basic information for Alaska boaters on boat registration, equipment requirements, and "rules of the road. Commission on Rural Governance and Empowerment. Fourth Ave.

Ray Bradbury

Examines local government as it currently exists in rural Alaska and makes recommendations for change. Thomas Juneau : Denali Press, pp. Explores the major political issues and public policies in Alaska at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Initiated as part of the Governor's strategy to make safe water and hygienic sewage service a reality for all Alaskans, this provides a step-by-step outline of how to produce a "Sanitation Master Plan" that reflects the thinking and decisions of the particular community carrying out the process. An overview of the natural history and geographic information about the Alaskan wilderness, enhanced with photographs, expert advice, and travel tips.

Anderson, Richard D. For both RVers and tent campers, state, federal, and privately operated campgrounds are described in detail. This is a revision of the author's work of the same title. Beck, Mary Giraudo. Biography of a teacher who began his Alaska career at the Presbyterian Sitka Training School in Bercee, Loverne. Box , Girdwood, AK A compilation of personal stories about life in Girdwood and Mt. Alyeska, including the earthquake.

Black, Lydia. Box , Fairbanks AK Provides a comprehensive view of the history of each Borough community and its economic development. Blender, Emmalee. Box , Petersburg AK Illustrated with photographs; most are of fishing boats, which seems appropriate for this southeast Alaskan fishing community. Thirteen Alaskans describe the region's spectacular forest and wildlife, its economic opportunities, and in two pieces by Tlingit storytellers, its oral history.

Boyd, Robert T. Box , Seattle WA Examines the introduction of infectious diseases among the Indians of the Northwest Coast culture area present-day western Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and southeast Alaska in the first century of contact and the effects of these new diseases on Native American population size, structure, interactions, and viability. The emphasis is on epidemic diseases and specific epidemic episodes.

Butcher, Russell D. A tour of the region's national parks with detailed descriptions of notable park features and full-color photography. Carlton, Rosemary. A study of Jackson, the nineteenth-century Presbyterian missionary, as a collector of Alaskan Native artifacts. Clark, Lee Ben. Contains a lengthy section on the planning and the reality of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Clemens, Janet and Chris Allan. Selected bibliographies on twelve different themes form the core of this booklet; Alaskan libraries and museums with WWII materials are also listed, as are selected internet sites. Clemens, Janet and Frank Norris.

An illustrated history of this unique western Alaskan park unit. Clifford, Howard. Originally published in as Rails North: The Railroads of Alaska and the Yukon, this new edition adds fifty pages and incorporates "a significant amount of new research material. Cole, Dermot. Cook, James. Box , Rochester NY Reissued by arrangement with its original publisher, the Hakluyt Society, this indexed and annotated edition of Cook's three voyages has long been out of print.

Only the third voyage, published here in two volumes totaling more than pages, passed through Alaskan waters. Cook, Linda. Illustrated history of this Anchorage Air Force installation and a survey of its buildings, except for those built between , which will appear in Volume II. DeArmond, Robert N. The Southeast Alaska historian describes his adventure. Debets, G.

Translation of a study of human remains collected by Froelich Rainey and Helge Larsen at Point Hope between and Decaneas, Antony. Traveling the world for eight decades, mountaineer, explorer, cartographer, and aerial photographer Bradford Washburn has documented the landscape around the world. This has black and white aerial photographs taken mainly in Alaska, but also some from the Swiss Alps and the American Southwest.

Decker, Julie. Highlights the work of 54 Alaskan artists with biographical information, examples of their work, and many photographs, some color. Also includes essays on art in Alaska. Degnan, Frances Ann. Box 33, Unalakleet AK Memories, interviews and photographs of the Unalakleet area. Dixon, E. This revolutionary archeological synthesis argues an alternative model of the earliest human population of North America. James Dixon dispels the stereotype of big-game hunters following mammoths across the Bering Land Bridge and paints a vivid picture of marine mammal hunters, fishers, and general foragers colonizing the New World.

Dubin, Lois Sherr. Abrams, Inc. Illustrated, comprehensive study of jewelry, beadwork, clothing, and ceremonial objects from ancient times to the present, made by indigenous peoples throughout the United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Durr, R. Sixties dropout from East Coast academia becomes a fisherman and Alaskan. Steven Picou [et al. The communities caught in the path of the oil spill or lying within easy reach of it were damaged in unmistakable if subtle ways. This textbook gathers papers from sociological viewpoints, allowing us a many-dimensioned look at one of the most important environmental disasters of modern times.

The authors, marine biologists and naturalists living in Homer, offer a pocket-sized field guide to many of the most commonly found invertebrates, where to find them, and tips on photographing them. Also includes historical photographs of early Fairbanks, additional hand-written recipes found in the original copy, and an introduction by Mary Childers Mangusso and Phyllis Demuth Movius. Firth, John. This insider's view of the legendary race between Fairbanks and Whitehorse includes anecdotes from all the races plus all results and rules.

Freedman, Donna. Written by a local author, this guide gives the feeling of having inside information on the city and all it has to offer. A portion of proceeds from the sales of this goes to the Alaska Center for the Book. Freedman, Lew. Box , Kenmore WA Biography of the man who almost single-handedly rescued long-distance Alaska dog mushing from extinction.

Garibaldi, Ann. Judy Alward, A St. George, Marilyn Jordan. DeArmond says the author "has written a gripping account of those years of fishing for salmon and halibut, of disasters at sea, and of raising a family under circumstances peculiar to Southeastern Alaska.

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Glines, Carroll V. He set polar flight records, organized a series of daring wartime air operations, and became a leader in Arctic aviation. But despite these achievements, Norwegian-American aviator Bernt Balchen saw his public image and military career repeatedly undermined by his one-time mentor, the famous and influential Admiral Richard Byrd.

Hadman, Ballard. Hadman's son adds a preface to this reprint of her classic about her life in Alaska. Harkey, Ira. This reprint of the classic Pioneer Bush Pilot by the Pulitzer Prize-winning author brings understanding of both Wien and the Alaska he knew.

Hayes, Derek. Reproductions of historic maps, from the 16 th through the 20 th centuries. Heacox, Kim. A revision of the author's book of the same title. Hilscher, Herb. This is a reprint of the edition. It contains dozens of scripts for television and radio spots which were narrated by Elmer Rasmuson and aired in the s.

Hirschmann, Fred. Alaska From the Air Portland, Ore. Box , Portland, OR This coffee table book describes the petroleum company's Alaskan activities and features many group photos of employees. Jensen, Erv. Erv and his brother, Sven, started commercial fishing from little boats for big salmon in southeast Alaska nearly a half century ago and were among the pioneers of techniques for catching chinook salmon, such as mooching. Jensen, Marcus F. Autobiography of a master big game guide and territorial legislator who arrived in Alaska in Johnson, Nona J.

Jonaitis, Aldona. A study of the history and significance of an artifact collection removed from Vancouver Island in , and now housed at the American Museum of Natural History. Kan, Sergei. A native speaker of Russian with 18 years of fieldwork experience among the Tlingit combines anthropology and history, anecdote and theory to portray the encounter between the Tlingit Indians and the Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska in the late s and to analyze the indigenous Orthodoxy that developed over the next years.

Kaniut, Larry. The author of Alaska Bear Tales offers an anthology of true adventures set in Alaska's wilderness. Kari, James. A study of places and names in southcentral Alaskan Athabaskan culture. Keeble, John. In this now definitive book on the oil spill, all the primary concerns of the first edition are updated with new material.

Lord, Nancy. Box , Washington DC Madonna, James A. Malin, Edward. Focuses on the lost riches of house art, bringing to life this extraordinary, nearly extinct work through rare photographs and his own renderings of actual house paintings and screen partitions. Matz, George. Geography and history of the mountain wilderness which straddles the Alaska-Yukon boundary. McAlister, Emily and Melinda Tsu. Army Corps of Engineers, 22 pp. Illustrated pamphlet describing this Army post near Kodiak.

At full capacity, Fort Greely housed nearly officers and 10, soldiers, waiting for an attack by Japan which never came.

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Mobley, Charles M. History of structures and operations at the site of a southeast Alaska cannery which burned in ; includes an appendix listing Angoon residents receiving wages from the cannery in Using oral history interviews, historical photographs, and field surveys, the author describes evidence of human activity in this area near Petersburg. Moore, Katrina H. Biography of a Maine-born mountaineer and bush pilot who became the second president of the University of Alaska in ; written by his wife and edited by his daughter.

Murray, Jean A. A collection of historically verified pieces of music with arrangements of the originals suitable for modern voices and instruments brings back the sounds of the "Days of Ninety-Eight. Illustrated, historical highlights of the Department of the Interior's role in the political, economic, and social development of Alaska. Northwest Carving Traditions Atglen, Penn. With the collector in mind, this depicts Northwest Coast Native art in over color photos of totems, drums, rattles, boxes, canoes, and masks. Lee Fairbanks : University of Alaska Museum, 75 pp. Beautiful exhibit catalog with informative accompanying text.

Nye, Dagmar I. Memories of childhood, youth, and adulthood as a woman of Alaska. O'Connell, Rev. An illustrated denominational history covering mission work, churches, people and issues in four regions of the state: northwest arctic, arctic, interior, and south-central. O'Donoghue, Brian Patrick.

A newspaper reporter tries his luck on the brutal Yukon Quest six years after finishing last in the Iditarod. Olthuis, Diane. An illustrated survey of the buildings in this small Turnagain Arm community. Orekhov, Aleksandr A. In a translation of the original Russian edition, the author examines archeological evidence of the Kerek, a maritime hunting people of the Russian Bering Sea coast between Cape Oliutorskii and the Gulf of Anadyr.

Ostrowitz, Judith. Box , Seattle, WA Approaches questions of authenticity and tradition in Northwest Coast art through a careful consideration of replicas, reproductions, and creative translations of past forms of Northwest Coast dances, ceremonies, masks, painted screens, and houses.

Oswalt, Wendell H. Eskimos and Explorers, 2 nd edition Linclon, Neb.

Saavedra, Angel de, duque de Rivas

This second edition of the classic has been fully updated and features the most recent information on the cultures and histories of Native peoples in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland. Poynor, A. Box , Nikiski AK A collection of humorous columns originally appearing in the Peninsula Clarion. Proenneke, Richard. Brought back into print after over twenty years, Sam Keith compiled this tribute from Proenneke's journals.

Raban, Jonathan. Rasmussen, Knud. Reprint of the classic tale of the trek from Greenland to Siberia, , with a new introduction by editor Terrence Cole. Reid, Harry. Clarence Thwing, M. Cotati Avenue, Penngrove CA Reid's Master's thesis focuses on the transcription and annotation of a copy book of Clarence Thwing, a Presbyterian medical missionary sent to convert the Tlingits at Fort Wrangel, Alaska at the end of the 19 th century.

Ricks, Byron. The true story of a remarkable adventure: an extraordinary trip by kayak that began in April in Alaska's Glacier Bay and concluded five months later in the southern Puget Sound. Ritchey, Brenda. Box , Auburn WA The granddaughter of the face behind the Alaska Airlines logo reveals the family's identity, traditions, and legacy through the story of her grandfather's life. Robins, Elizabeth. Gates Fairbanks : University of Alaska Press, pp. Joining the rush to Nome, London actress Elizabeth Robins looked for her brothers and recorded much about the transformation of the north.

Romano-Lax, Andromeda. Half of the cabins described in this book weren't available to the public ten years ago. A public cabin provides a rustic and affordable, private base camp and ensures a safe, dry, and comfortable shelter between jaunts. As, also, the phrases expressing the existence or the activity of these natural objects lost their ancient signification under new colloquial coloring, primitive and simple statements of natural events acquired the garb and dignity of elaborate and often incongruous narratives, no longer about natural events, but about persons.

Ancient language may, for instance, have said sunrise follows the dawn. The word for sun was masculine; the word for dawn, feminine. In time the sentence came to mean Apollo the god of the sun chases Daphne, the maiden of the glowing dawn. But the word, Daphne , meant also a laurel that burned easily, hence might readily be devoted to the god of the sun.

So Daphne, the maiden, assuming the form of Daphne, the laurel, escaped the pursuit of her ardent lover, by becoming the tree sacred to his worship. But unfortunately there is very often no agreement among scholars about the original meaning of the names of mythical beings. The same name is frequently explained in half a dozen different ways. The same deity is reduced by different interpreters to half a dozen elements of nature.

A certain goddess represents now the upper air, now light, now lightning, and yet again clouds. Naturally the attempts at construing her adventures must terminate in correspondingly dissimilar and unconvincing results. In fine, the philological explanation assumes as its starting-point masculine and feminine names for objects of nature. It does not attempt to show how an object like the ocean came to be male, and not female, or how it came to be a person at all. And this latter, in studying the origin of myths, is what should first be ascertained.

We must not, however, fall into the error of supposing that the philologists look for the origin and growth of all myths in words and the diseases of words. He insists that mythologists should bear in mind that there may be in every mythological riddle elements which resist etymological analysis, for the simple reason that their origin was not etymological, but historical. It leads us to explain myths as embodiments in symbolic guise of hidden meaning: of physical, chemical, or astronomical facts; or of moral, religious, philosophical truth. The stories would at first exist as allegories, but in process of time would come to be understood literally.

Thus Cronus, who devours his own children, is identified with the power that the Greeks called Chronos Time , which may truly be said to destroy whatever it has brought into existence. The story of Io is interpreted in a similar manner. Io is the moon, and Argus the starry sky, which, as it were, keeps sleepless watch over her. The fabulous wanderings of Io represent the continual revolutions of the moon. This method of explanation rests upon the assumption that the men who made the allegories were proficient in physics, chemistry, astronomy, etc.

In some cases the myth was, without doubt, from the first an allegory; but where the myth was consciously fashioned as an allegory, in all probability it was preserved as such. It is not, however, likely that allegories of deep scientific or philosophical import were invented by savages. Where the myth has every mark of great antiquity, — is especially silly and senseless and savage, — it is safe to believe that any profound allegorical meaning, read into it, is the work of men of a later generation who thus attempted to make reasonable the divine and heroic narratives which they could not otherwise justify, and of whose existence they were ashamed.

We find, moreover, in some cases a great variety of symbolic explanations of the same myth, one with as great claim to credence as another, since they spring from the same source, the caprice or fancy of the expounder. Among the ancients Theagenes of Rhegium , six hundred years before Christ, suggested the allegorical theory and method of interpretation. So in Greek mythology the attributes of the various gods would be imperfect irradiations of the attributes of the one God.

A more limited conception is, that all mythological legends are derived from the narratives of Scripture, though the real facts have been disguised and altered. The dragon which kept the golden apples was the serpent that beguiled Eve. For many myths antedate the scriptural narratives of which they are said to be copies; many more, though resembling the scriptural stories, originated among peoples ignorant of the Hebrew Bible.

The theological theory has been advocated by Voss and other Germans in the seventeenth century, by Jacob Bryant in , and in this century most ably by Gladstone. We are now ready for the explanation of myth-making based upon the Theory of Progress. This is best stated by Mr. Andrew Lang 9 , whose argument is, when possible, given in his own language. To the question how the senseless element got into myths, the advocates of this theory answer that it was in the minds and in the social condition of the savages who invented the myths. First and foremost, curiosity that leads them to inquire into the causes of things; and second, credulity that impels them to invent or to accept childish stories that may satisfy their untutored experience.

We find, moreover, that savages nowadays think of everything around them as having life and the parts and passions of persons like themselves. Relationship to animals and ability to be transformed, and to transform others into animals and other objects. Magical accomplishments, such as power to call up ghosts, or to visit ghosts and the region of the dead; power over the seasons, the sun, moon, stars, weather, and so forth. The stories of savages to-day abound in adventures based upon qualities and incidents like these. If these stories should survive in the literature of these nations after the nations have been civilized, they would appear senseless and silly and cruel to the descendants of our contemporary savages.

This method of research depends upon the science of mind — psychology, and the science of man — anthropology. It may be called the Anthropological Method. It is of course probable that occasionally the questionable element of the myth originated in germs other than savage curiosity and credulity: for instance, in the adventures of some great hero, or in a disease of language by which statements about objects came to be understood as stories about persons, or perhaps in a conscious allegory, or, even, in the perversion of some ancient purer form of moral or religious truth.

But, in general, the root of myth-making is to be found in the mental and social condition of primitive man, the confused personality that he extended to his surroundings, and the belief in magical powers that he conferred upon those of his tribesmen that were shrewdest and most influential. This mental condition of the myth-maker should be premised in all scientific explanations of myth-making. Then, with the aid of the philological method of interpretation and of the euhemeristic, the transition is intelligible from a personification of the elements of nature or an exaggeration of historic facts to the notion of supernatural beings presiding over, and governing, the different objects of nature — air, fire, water, the sun, moon, arid stars, the mountains, forests, and streams — or possessing marvellous qualities of action, passion, virtue, foresight, spirituality, and vice.

The Greeks, whose imagination was lively, peopled all nature with such invisible inhabitants and powers. In Greece, says Wordsworth : 12 —. The historical myths we must leave the masters of history to follow; they, and the events they record, being yet involved in great, though attractive and penetrable, mystery. But the stars and hills and storms are with us now, as they were with others of old; and it only needs that we look at them with the earnestness of those childish eyes to understand the first words spoken of them by the children of men.

And then, in all the most beautiful and enduring myths, we shall find not only a literal story of a real person — not only a parallel imagery of moral principle — but an underlying worship of natural phenomena, out of which both have sprung, and in which both forever remain rooted. Thus, from the real sun, rising and setting; from the real atmosphere, calm in its dominion of unfading blue and fierce in its descent of tempest — the Greek forms first the idea of two entirely personal and corporeal gods Apollo and Athena , whose limbs are clothed in divine flesh, and whose brows are crowned with divine beauty; yet so real that the quiver rattles at their shoulder, and the chariot bends beneath their weight.

And, on the other hand, collaterally with these corporeal images, and never for one instant separated from them, he conceives also two omnipresent spiritual influences, of which one illuminates, as the sun, with a constant fire, whatever in humanity is skilful and wise; and the other, like the living air, breathes the calm of heavenly fortitude and strength of righteous anger into every human breast that is pure and brave. The root, in physical existence, sun, or sky, or cloud, or sea then the personal incarnation of that, becoming a trusted and companionable deity, with whom you may walk hand in hand, as a child with its brother or its sister; and lastly, the moral significance of the image, which is in all the great myths eternally and beneficently true.

It is sham history, the fictitious narrative of events that never happened. Myth is also actual history of early and imperfect stages of thought and belief: it is the true narrative of unenlightened observation, of infantine gropings after truth. The difficulty lies not so much in accounting for the similarity of thought or material in different stories, as for the resemblance in isolated incidents and in the arrangement of incidents or plot.

The principal theories of the distribution of myths are as follows: —. This theory leaves us no wiser than we were. This will account for exchange only between nations historically acquainted with each other. It will not account for the existence of the same arrangement of incidents in a Greek myth and in a Polynesian romance.

This theory fails to account for numerous stories current among the modern nationalities of Europe, of Africa, and of India itself. It leaves also unexplained the existence of certain myths in Egypt many centuries before India had any known history: such as, in all probability, the Egyptian myth of Osiris. The theory, therefore, is open to the objection made to the theory of borrowing. It is, moreover, not likely that many historical incidents like those related in the Iliad and the Odyssey happened in the same order, and as actual history, in Asia Minor, Ithaca, Persia, and Norway.

But we find myths containing such incidents in all these countries. Moreover, the assumption of this common stock considers only Aryan tribes: it ignores Africans, Mongolians, American Indians, and other peoples whose myths resemble the Aryan, but are not traceable to the same original germ. The Aryan germ-theory has, however, the merit of explaining resemblances between many myths of different Aryan nations. This may be called the psychological theory. But while the possibility of the diffusion of myths by borrowing and transmission must be allowed for, the hypothesis of the origin of myths in the savage state of the intellect supplies a ready explanation of their wide diffusion.

They are the rough product of the early human mind, and are not yet characterized by the differentiations of race and culture. Such myths might spring up anywhere among untutored men, and anywhere might survive into civilized literature. The distribution of myth, like its origin, is inexplicable by any one theory. The discovery of racial families and of family traditions narrows the problem, but does not solve it. And until we possess the earliest records of those unrelated nationalities that have similar myths, or until we discover monuments and log-books of some commercial nation that, in prehistoric times, circumnavigated the globe, and deposited on remote shores and islands the seeds of the parent mythic plant, we must accept as our only scientific explanation the psychological, or so-called human , theory: — Given similar mental condition with similar surroundings, similar imaginative products, called myths, will result.

Many of these early bards are mere names to us. Most of them are probably as mythical as the songs with which they are accredited. The following is a brief account of mythical prophets, of mythical musicians and poets, and of the actual poets and historians who recorded the mythologies from which English literature draws its classical myths: the Greek, the Roman, the Norse, and the German.

In Greece. Melampus was the first Greek said to be endowed with prophetic powers. The old serpents were killed by the slaves, but Melampus saved the young ones. One day when he was asleep under the oak, the serpents licked his ears with their tongues, enabling him to understand the language of birds and creeping things. But Melampus in the silence of the night heard from the woodworms in the timbers that the supports of the house were- nearly eaten through and the roof would soon fall in. He told his captors. They took his warning, escaped destruction, rewarded the prophet, and held him in high honor.

The stories of these expeditions will follow in due course. Orpheus , whose adventures are elsewhere narrated, 23 passes in tradition for the oldest of Greek lyrists, and the special favorite, even the son, of the god Apollo, patron of musicians. This Thracian bard is said to have taught mysterious truths concerning the origin of things and the immortality of the soul. But the fragments of Orphic Hymns which are attributed to him are probably the work of philosophers of a much later period in Greek literature. Another Thracian bard, Thamyris , is said in his presumption to have challenged the Muses to a trial of skill.

Conquered in the contest, he was deprived of his sight. Milton couples his name with that of Orpheus : —. Other legendary bards or musicians were Linus, Marsyas, and Amphion. The traditionary story is that he was a wandering minstrel, blind and old, who travelled from place to place singing his lays to the music of his harp, in the courts of princes or the cottages of peasants, — a dependant upon the voluntary offerings of his hearers. Modern scholars have doubted whether the Homeric poems are the work of any single mind. This uncertainty arises, in part, from the difficulty of believing that poems of such length could have been committed to writing in the age usually assigned to these, when materials capable of transmitting long productions were not yet in use.

On the other hand, it is asked how poems of such length could have been handed down from age to age by means of the memory alone. This question is answered by the statement that there was a professional body of men whose business it was to commit to memory, and rehearse for pay, the national and patriotic legends. Pisistratus of Athens ordered a commission of scholars about b. The so-called Homeric Hymns to the gods which were composed, by various poets, after the death of Homer , are a source of valuable information concerning the attributes of the divinities addressed.

The date assigned to Homer , on the authority of Herodotus , is b. Hesiod is, like Homer , one of the most important sources of our knowledge of Greek mythology. He is thought by some to have been a contemporary of Homer , but concerning the relative dates of the two poets there is no certainty. From the former we obtain a connected account of Greek traditions concerning the primitive commodities of life, the arts of agriculture and navigation, the sacred calendar, and the various prehistoric ages.

The artist of the Iliad and the Odyssey seems to have refined the stories into poetic gold; Hesiod has gathered them in the ore like so many specimens for a museum. A company of Lyric Poets , of whom Stesichorus b. They have left us hymns to the gods, references to mythical heroes, and accounts of more or less pathetic legendary adventures.

Of the works of Sappho few fragments remain, but they establish her claim to eminent poetical genius. Her story is frequently alluded to. Of Arion the greatest work was a dithyramb or choral hymn to the god of wine. It is said that his music and song were of such sweetness as to charm the monsters of the sea; and that when thrown overboard on one occasion by avaricious seamen, he was borne safely to land by an admiring dolphin.

Spenser represents Arion , mounted on his dolphin, accompanying the train of Neptune and Amphitrite: —. Simonides was one of the most prolific of the early poets of Greece, but only a few fragments of his compositions have descended to us. He wrote hymns, triumphal odes, and elegies, and in the last species of composition he particularly excelled. His genius was inclined to the pathetic; none could touch with truer effect the chords of human sympathy. The myth of her son, Perseus, will be found in a later chapter of this book. Myths received their freest and perhaps most ideal treatment at the hands of the greatest lyric poet of Greece, Pindar b.

In his hymns and songs of praise to gods and in his odes composed for the victors in the national athletic contests, he was accustomed to use the mythical exploits of Greek heroes as a text from which to draw morals appropriate to the occasion. The three great Tragic Poets of Greece have handed down to us a wealth of mythological material. In the tragedies of Sophocles b. Of the dramas of Euripides b. All of these stories will be recounted in their proper places. The Comedies of Aristophanes , also, are replete with matters of mythological import. Of the later poets of mythology, only two need be mentioned here, — Apollonius of Rhodes b.

Apollodorus b. That delightful traveller Pausanias makes special mention in his Tour of Greece , of the sacred customs and legends that had maintained themselves as late as his time a. Roman Poets of Mythology. Vergil was born in Mantua in the year 70 b. His great poem is ranked next to those of Homer , in that noble class of poetical composition, the epic. Vergil is inferior to Homer in originality and invention. The myths concerning the founding of Rome, which Vergil has received from earlier writers, he has here fused into a literary epic.

Ovid , often alluded to in poetry by his other name, Naso, was born in the year 43 b. He was educated for public life, and held some offices of considerable dignity; but poetry was his delight, and he early resolved to cultivate it. Lie accordingly sought the society of contemporary poets, and was acquainted with Horace and saw Vergil , though the latter died when Ovid was yet too young and undistinguished to have formed his acquaintance.

Ovid spent an easy life at Rome in the enjoyment of a competent income. At the age of fifty he was banished from Rome, and ordered to betake himself to Tomi, on the borders of the Black Sea. His only consolation in exile was to address his wife and absent friends. His letters were all in verse. They are both mythological poems, and from the former we have taken most of our stories of Grecian and Roman mythology. These poems have thus been characterized: —. With exquisite taste, simplicity, and pathos he has narrated the fabulous traditions of early ages, and given to them that appearance of reality which only a master-hand could impart.

His pictures of nature are striking and true; he selects with care that which is appropriate; he rejects the superfluous, and when he has completed his work, it is neither defective nor redundant. In an incidental manner, Horace , the prince of Roman lyric poets, and the lyric and elegiac writers, Catullus , Tibullus , and Propertius , have liberally increased our knowledge of Greek and Roman myth.

Seneca , the teacher of Nero, is best known for his philosophical treatises; but he wrote, also, tragedies, the materials of which are well known Greek legends. Apuleius , born in Africa, a. Records of Norse Mythology. Their mythological lore has been transmitted by means of Runes, Skaldic poems , the Eddas , and the Sagas. The Runes. The word means hidden lore , or mystery. The earliest runes were merely fanciful signs supposed to possess mysterious power.

As a synonym for writing , the term was first applied to the Northern alphabet, itself derived from ancient Greek and Roman coins. Of the old Scandinavian runes several specimens have been found—one an inscription on a golden horn of the third or fourth century a. From such an alphabet the Anglo-Saxon runes were derived. Inscriptions in later Scandinavian runes have been discovered in Sweden, Denmark, and the Isle of Man. The characters are of the stiff and angular form necessitated by the materials on which they were inscribed: tombstones, spoons, chairs, oars, and so forth.

The Skaldic Poems. They were the depositaries of whatever historic lore there was; and it was their office to mingle something of intellectual gratification with the rude feasts of the warriors, by rehearsing, with such accompaniments of poetry and music as their skill could afford, the exploits of heroes living or dead. Such songs were called Drapas. The origin of Skaldic poetry is lost in mythic or prehistoric darkness, but the Skalds of Iceland continued to play a most important part in the literary development of the north as late as the end of the fourteenth century.

Without their cooperation, the greater part of the songs and Sagas of genuine antiquity could hardly have reached us. The Skaldic diction which was polished to an artistic extreme, with its pagan metaphors and similes, retained its supremacy over literary form even after the influence of Christianity had revolutionized national thought.

The Eddas. The word Edda has usually been connected with the Icelandic for great-grandmother ; 35 it has also been regarded as a corruption of the High German Erda , Mother Earth, from whom, according to the lay in which the word first occurs, the earliest race of mankind sprang, 36 — or as the point or head of Norse poetry, 37 or as a tale concerned with death 38 or as derived from Odde, the home of the reputed collector of the Elder Edda.

Until the year the name was applied to a book, principally in prose, containing Mythical Tales, a Treatise on the Poetic Art and Diction, a Poem on Metres, and a Rhymed Glossary of Synonyms, with an appendix of minor treatises on grammar and rhetoric — the whole intended as a guide for poets. Although a note in the Upsala manuscript, of date about a. It is probable, too, that in the Mythical Tales, or the Delusion of Gylfi, Snorri merely enlarged, and edited with poetical illustrations, the work of earlier hands.

In , Bishop Bryniolf Sveinsson discovered a manuscript of the mythological poems of Iceland. The oldest manuscript of the Poetical Edda is of the thirteenth century. Its contents were probably collected not later than The Sagas. Records of German Mythology. The Norse form of the story exhibits a later survival of the credulous, or myth-making, mental condition.

The Lay of the Nibelungs absorbed, at an earlier date, historical elements, and began sooner to restrict the personality of its heroes within the compass of human limitations. Although there are many manuscripts, or fragments of manuscripts, of the Nibelungenlied that attest its popularity between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, it was not until the Swiss critic, J.

Since that time many theories of the composition of the Nibelungenlied have been advanced. It has been held by some that the German epic is an adaptation of the Norse version ; 46 by others, that the Scandinavians, not the Germans, borrowed the story; and by others still that the epics, while proceeding from a common cradle, are of independent growth.

The last theory is the most tenable. In fine, the materials of the poem would persuade us not only of its origin in very ancient popular lays, but of their fusion and improvement by the imaginative effort of at least one, and, probably, of several poets, who lived and wrote between and a. The metrical structure, also, would indicate derivation from the German folk-song and modification due to multifarious handling on the part of popular minstrels and poets of written verse. Records of Oriental Mythology. The following is, however, a brief outline of the means by which some of them have been preserved.

Egyptian Records. Indian Records. The most ancient, the Rig-veda , consists of hymns of an elevated and spiritual character composed by families of Rishis, or psalmists, as far back, perhaps, as b. They give us the religious conceptions of the Aryans when they crossed the Himalayas and began to push toward Southern Hindostan. The Sama-veda is a book of solemn chants and tunes. The Yajur-veda comprises prayers for sacrificial occasions, and interpretations of the same. The Atharva-veda shows, as might be expected of the youngest of the series, the influence upon the purer Aryan creed, of superstitions borrowed, perhaps, from the aboriginal tribes of India.

It contains spells for exorcising demons and placating them. Scholars differ as to the chronological precedence. The Adventures of Rama , on the other hand, recalls a more primitive stage of credulity, and of savage invention. It contains several well-rounded epic poems, the most beautiful of which is the Episode of Nala, — a prince who, succumbing to a weakness common to his contemporaries, has gambled away his kingdom. The resemblance between the plot and that of the Iliad has inclined some scholars to derive the Indian from the Greek epic.

The theory is unsubstantiated. These epics of India lack the artistic spirit and grace of the Iliad and the Odyssey , but they display a keener sympathy with nature and a more romantic appreciation of the loves and sorrows of mankind. Persian Records. Zoroaster , a holy man of God, was the founder or the reformer of the Persian religion. He lived as early as the fourteenth or fifteenth century b. The teachings of Zoroaster are characterized by beautiful simplicity and by an unwavering faith in the ultimate victory of righteousness Ormuzd over evil Ahriman.

The stories of Greek, Roman, Norse, and German mythology that have most influenced our English literature will follow in the order named. The Romans, being by nature a practical, not a poetic, people, incorporated in their literature the mythology of the Greeks. We shall, however, append to our description of the Greek gods a brief account of the native Latin divinities that retained an individuality in Roman literature. Origin of the World.

Homer tells us that River Ocean, a deep and mighty flood, encircling land and sea like a serpent with its tail in its mouth, was the source of all. According to other myths Night and Darkness were the prime elements of Nature and from them sprang Light. Of these, one was Heaven, the other Earth. From the centre of the egg proceeded Eros Love and other wondrous beings. But the most consistent account of the origin of the world and of the gods is given by the poet Hesiod , who tells us that Chaos, the yawning abyss, composed of Void, Mass, and Darkness in confusion, preceded all things else.

Next came into being broad-bosomed Earth, and beautiful Love who should rule the hearts of gods and men. But from Chaos itself issued Erebus, 53 the mysterious darkness that is under Earth, — and Night, dwelling in the remote regions of sunset. From Mother Earth proceeded first the starry vault of Heaven, durable as brass or iron, where the gods were to take up their abode. Earth brought forth next the mountains and fertile fields, the stony plains, the sea, and the plants and animals that possess them. Origin of the Gods. For in the heart of creation Love begins to stir, making of material things creatures male and female, and bringing them together by instinctive affinity.

The Titans 54 appear to be the personification of mighty convulsions of the physical world, of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. They played a quarrelsome part in mythical history; they were instigators of hatred and strife. Homer mentions specially two of them, Iapetus and Cronus ; but Hesiod enumerates thirteen. The three Cyclopes represented the terrors of rolling thunder, of the lightning-flash, and of the thunderbolt; and, probably, for this reason, one fiery eye was deemed enough for each.

The hundred-handed monsters, or Hecatonchires , were also three in number. In them, probably, the Greeks imaged the sea with its multitudinous waves, its roar, and its breakers that seem to shake the earth. These lightning-eyed, these hundred-handed monsters, their father Uranus feared and attempted to destroy, by thrusting them into Tartarus, the profound abysm of the earth. None dared espouse her cause save Cronus, the crafty. With an iron sickle he lay in wait for his sire, fell, upon him, and drove him, grievously wounded, from the encounter.

From the blood of the mutilated Uranus leaped into being the Furies, whose heads writhe with serpents; the Giants, a novel race of monsters; and the Melic Nymphs, invidious maidens of the ashen spear. The Rule of Cronus. He is, from the beginning, of incalculable years. For unknown ages Cronus and Rhea, his sister-queen, governed Heaven and Earth. Cronus, however, having learned from his parents that he should be dethroned by one of his own children, conceived the well-intentioned but ill-considered device of swallowing each as it was born.

His queen, naturally desirous of discouraging the practice, — when it came to the turn of her sixth child, palmed off on the insatiable Cronus a stone carefully enveloped in swaddling clothes. Jupiter or Zeus , the rescued infant, was concealed in the island of Crete, where, nurtured by the nymphs, Adrastea and Ida, and fed on the milk of the goat Amalthea, he in due season attained maturity.

First came to light the memorable stone, which was placed in safe keeping at Delphi; then the five brothers and sisters of Jupiter, ardent to avenge themselves upon the unnatural author of their existence and their captivity. The War of the Titans. Jupiter and his hosts held Mount Olympus. For ages victory wavered in the balance. Instantly they hastened to the battle-field of Thessaly, the Cyclopes to support Jupiter with their thunders and lightnings, the hundred-handed monsters with the shock of the earthquake.

Provided with such artillery, shaking earth and sea, Jupiter issued to the onslaught. With the gleam of the lightning the Titans were blinded, by the earthquake they were laid low, with the flames they were well-nigh consumed: overpowered and fettered by the hands of the Hecatonchires, they were consigned to the yawning cave of Tartarus.

Atlas, the son of Iapetus, was doomed to bear the heavens on his shoulders. But a more famous son of the same Titan, Prometheus, who had espoused the cause of Jove, acquired dignity hereafter to be set forth.

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The Division of Empire. He delegated to his brother Neptune or Posidon the kingdom of the sea and of all the waters; to his brother Pluto or Hades , the government of the underworld, dark, unseen, mysterious, where the spirits of the dead should dwell, and of Tartarus, wherein were held the fallen Titans. For himself Jupiter retained Earth and the Heaven, into whose broad and sunny regions towered Olympus, the favored mountain of the greater gods. The Reign of Jupiter. Another son was born to her — Typhon, a monster more awful than his predecessors — whose destiny it was to dispute the sway of the almighty Zeus.

From the neck of Typhon dispread themselves a hundred dragon-heads; his eyes shot fire, and from his black-tongued chaps proceeded the hissing of snakes, the bellowing of bulls, the roaring of lions, the barking of dogs, pipings and screams, and, at times, the voice and utterance of the gods themselves. Against Heaven this horror lifted himself; but quailing before the thunderbolt of Jove, he too descended to Tartarus, his own place and the abode of his brethren.

To this day, however, he grumbles and hisses, thrusts upward a fiery tongue through the crater of a volcano, or, breathing siroccos, scorches trees and men. Later still, the Giants , offspring of the blood that fell from the wounded Uranus, renewed the revolt against the Olympian gods. They were creatures nearer akin to men than were the Titans, or the Cyclopes, or Typhon.

They clothed themselves in the skins of beasts, and armed themselves with rocks and trunks of trees. Their bodies and lower limbs were of snakes. They were awful to encounter or to look upon. They were named, like men, the earth-born; and their characteristics would suggest some prehistoric brutish race, hot-headed, not amenable to reason. In the war against them, Juno and Minerva, divinities of the new dynasty of Heaven, took active part, — and Hercules, an earthly son of Jupiter, whose arrows aided in their defeat.

It was from the overthrow of Pallas that Athene or Minerva derived, according to certain records, her proud designation of Pallas-Athene. What other outcome can be expected when mere physical or brute force joins issue with the enlightened and embattled hosts of heaven? Jupiter destroying the Giants. The Origin of Man was a question which the Greeks did not settle so easily as the Hebrews. Greek traditions do not trace all mankind to an original pair.

On the contrary, the generally received opinion was that men grew out of trees and stones, or were produced by the rivers or the sea. Some said that men and gods were both derived from Mother Earth, hence both autochthonous ; and some, indeed, claimed an antiquity for the human race equal to that of the divinities.

All narratives, however, agree in one statement, — that the gods maintained intimate relations with men until, because of the growing sinfulness and arrogance of mankind, it became necessary for the immortals to withdraw their favor. Prometheus, a Creator. In that conflict, Prometheus, gifted with prophetic wisdom, had adopted the cause of the Olympian deities.

To him and his brother Epimetheus was now committed the office of making man and providing him and all other animals with the faculties necessary for their preservation. Prometheus was to overlook the work of Epimetheus. Epimetheus proceeded to bestow upon the different animals the various gifts of courage, strength, swiftness, sagacity; wings to one, claws to another, a shelly covering to a third.

But Prometheus himself made a nobler animal than these. Taking some earth and kneading it with water, he made man in the image of the gods. He gave him an upright stature, so that while other animals turn their faces toward the earth, man gazes on the stars. Then since Epimetheus, always rash, and thoughtful when too late, had been so prodigal of his gifts to other animals that no blessing was left worth conferring upon the noblest of creatures, Prometheus ascended to heaven, lighted his torch at the chariot of the sun, and brought down fire.

With fire in his possession man would be able, when necessary, to win her secrets and treasures from the earth, to develop commerce, science, and the arts. The Age of Gold. Truth and right prevailed, though not enforced by law, nor was there any in authority to threaten or to punish. The forest had not yet been robbed of its trees to yield timbers for vessels, nor had men built fortifications round their towns. There were no such things as swords, spears, or helmets.

The earth brought forth all things necessary for man, without his labor in ploughing or sowing. Perpetual spring reigned, flowers sprang up without seed, the rivers flowed with milk and wine, and yellow honey distilled from the oaks. This Golden Age had begun in the reign of Cronus. The Silver Age came next, inferior to the golden. Jupiter shortened the spring, and divided the year into seasons.

Then, first, men suffered the extremes of heat and cold, and houses became necessary. Caves were their dwellings, — and leafy coverts of the woods, and huts woven of twigs. Crops would no longer grow without planting. The farmer was constrained to sow the seed, and the ox to draw the plough.

This was a race of manly men, but insolent and impious. And when they died, Jupiter made them ghosts of the underworld, but withheld the privilege of immortal life. Prometheus, Champion of Man. Therefore, once upon a time, when gods and men were in dispute at Sicyon concerning the prerogatives of each, Prometheus, by an ingenious trick, attempted to settle the question in favor of man. Dividing into two portions a sacrificial bull; he wrapped all the eatable parts in the skin, cunningly surmounted with uninviting entrails; but the bones he garnished with a plausible mass of fat.

He then offered Jupiter his choice. The king of Heaven, although he perceived the intended fraud, took the heap of bones and fat, and, forthwith availing himself of this insult as an excuse for punishing mankind, deprived the race of fire. But Prometheus regained the treasure, stealing it from Heaven in a hollow tube. He is declared to have planned for man a curse in the shape of woman. How the race had persisted hitherto without woman is a mystery; but that it had done so, with no slight degree of happiness, the experience of the Golden Age would seem to prove.

However, the bewitching evil was fashioned, — in Heaven, properly enough, — and every god and goddess contributed something to her perfection. One gave her beauty, another persuasive charm, a third the faculty of music. And the caution was not groundless. In the hand of Pandora had been placed by the immortals a casket or vase which she was forbidden to open.

Overcome by an unaccountable curiosity to know what this vessel contained, she one day lifted the cover and looked in. Forthwith there escaped a multitude of plagues for hapless man — gout, rheumatism, and colic for his body; envy, spite, and revenge for his mind — and scattered themselves far and wide. Pandora hastened to replace the lid; but one thing only remained in the casket, and that was hope. Because of his unselfish devotion to the cause of humanity, Prometheus drew down on himself the anger of Olympian Jove, by whose order he was chained to a rock on Mount Caucasus, and subjected to the attack of a vulture which, for ages, preyed upon his liver, yet succeeded not in consuming it.

But to reveal his secret he disdained. In this steadfastness he was supported by the knowledge that in the thirteenth generation there should arrive a hero, — a son of the mighty Jove — to release him. A happy application of the story of Prometheus is made by Longfellow in the following verses: — Next to the Age of Silver came the Brazen Age, 63 more savage of temper and readier for the strife of arms, yet not altogether wicked.

Last came the hardest age and worst, the Age of Iron. Crime burst in like a flood; modesty, truth, and honor fled. The gifts of the earth were put only to nefarious uses. Fraud, violence, war at home and abroad were rife. The Flood.

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He summoned the gods to council. Obeying the call, they travelled the Milky Way to the palace of Heaven. There, Jupiter set forth to the assembly the frightful condition of the earth, and announced his intention of destroying its inhabitants, and providing a new race, unlike the present, which should be worthier of life, and more reverent toward the gods. Fearing lest a conflagration might set Heaven itself on fire, he proceeded to drown the world. Not satisfied with his own waters, he called his brother Neptune to his aid. Speedily the race of men, and their possessions, were swept away by the deluge.

Deucalion and Pyrrha. Jupiter, remembering the harmless lives and pious demeanor of this pair, caused the waters to recede, — the sea to return to its shores, and the rivers to their channels. Then Deucalion and Pyrrha, entering a temple, defaced with slime, approached the unkindled altar, and, falling prostrate, prayed for guidance and aid. The earth is the great parent of all; the stones are her bones; these we may cast behind us; this, I think, the oracle means. At least, to try will harm us not. The stones began to grow soft, and to assume shape.

By degrees, they put on a rude resemblance to the human form. Those thrown by Deucalion became men; those by Pyrrha, women. It was a hard race that sprang up, and well adapted to labor. The Demigods and Heroes. Since, however, these demigods and heroes were, many of them, reputed to have been directly descended from Deucalion, their epoch must be regarded as subsequent to the deluge.

Another great division of the Greek people, the Pelasgic, resident in the Peloponnesus or southern portion of the peninsula, was said to have sprung from a different stock of heroes, that of Pelasgus, son of Phoroneus of Argos, and grandson of the river-god Inathus. The demigods and heroes were of matchless worth and valor.

Their adventures form the subject of many of the succeeding chapters. They were the chieftains of the Theban and the Trojan wars and of numerous other military or predatory expeditions. Since most of the myths in Chapters IV to XXVII are best known to English poetry in their Latin form, the Latin designations, or Latinized forms of Greek names, have been retained; but, for the poetic conception of all these stories, except such as are contained in Sections 55, 56, 98 and , we are indebted not to the Roman but the Greek imagination.

The gods had their separate dwellings; but all, when summoned, repaired to the palace of Jupiter, — even the deities whose usual abode was the earth, the waters, or the underworld. In the great hall of the Olympian king the gods feasted each day on ambrosia and nectar. Here they conversed of the affairs of heaven and earth; and as they quaffed the nectar that Hebe poured, Apollo made melody with his lyre, and the Muses sang in responsive strain. When the sun was set, the gods withdrew to their respective dwellings for the night. The following lines from the Odyssey express the conception of Olympus entertained by Homer : —.

The Great Gods. His daughter by Dione, — Venus Aphrodite. Of these all were deities of the highest order save Hebe, who must be ranked with the lesser gods. Jupiter 71 Zeus. Jupiter was the supreme ruler of the universe, wisest of the divinities and most glorious. In the Iliad he informs the other gods that their united strength would not budge him: that, on the contrary, he could draw them, and earth, and the seas to himself, and suspend all from Olympus by a golden chain. Throned in the high, clear heavens, Jupiter was the gatherer of clouds and snows, the dispenser of gentle rains and winds, the moderator of light and heat and the seasons, the thunderer, the wielder of the thunderbolt.

Bodily strength and valor were dear to him. He was worshipped with various rites in different lands, and to him were sacred everywhere the loftiest trees and the grandest mountain peaks.

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He required of his worshippers cleanliness of surroundings and person and heart. Justice was his; his to repay violation of duty in the family, in social relations, and in the state. Prophecy was his; and his will was made known at the oracle of Dodona, where answers were given to those who inquired concerning the future. This oracular shrine was the most ancient in Greece. According to one account two black doves had taken wing from Thebes in Egypt. One flew to Dodona in Epirus, and, alighting in a grove of oaks, proclaimed to the inhabitants of the district that they should establish there an oracle of Jupiter.

The other dove flew to the temple of Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan oasis, and delivered a similar command. The responses of the oracle were given by the rustling of the oak trees in the wind. The sounds were interpreted by priests. That Jupiter himself, though wedded to the goddess Juno, should be charged with numerous other love affairs, not only in respect of goddesses, but of mortals, is, in part, explained by the fact that to the supreme divinity of the Greeks have been ascribed attributes and adventures of numerous local, and foreign, divinities that were gradually identified with him.

It is, therefore, not wise to assume that the love affairs of Jupiter and of other divinities always symbolize combinations of natural or physical forces that have repeated themselves in ever-varying guise. It is important to understand that the more ideal Olympian religion absorbed features of inferior religions, and that Jupiter, when represented as appropriating the characteristics of other gods, was sometimes, also, accredited with their wives.

Beside the children of Jupiter already enumerated, there should here be mentioned, as of peculiar consequence, Bacchus Dionysus , the god of wine, a deity of earth, — Proserpine, the wife of Pluto and queen of the underworld, — and Hercules, the greatest of the heroes. Conceptions of Jupiter. His special messenger was the eagle. The statue-of Olympian Jove by Phidias was considered the highest achievement of Grecian sculpture. For the parts representing flesh were of ivory laid on a frame-work of wood, while the drapery and ornaments were of gold.

The height of the figure was 1 feet ; the pedestal twelve feet high. The god was represented as seated on his throne. His brows were crowned with; wreath of olive; he held in his right hand a sceptre, and in hi left a statue of Victory. The throne was of cedar, adorned with gold and precious stones. Jupiter Enthroned. The idea which the artist essayed to embody was that of the supreme deity of the Hellenic nation, enthroned as a conqueror, in perfect majesty and repose, and ruling with a nod the subject world. Unfortunately, our knowledge of this famous statue is confined to literary descriptions, and to copies on coins.

Other representations of Jove, such as that given above, have been obtained from the wall-paintings of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Juno 73 Hera , sister and wife of Jupiter. According to some, her name Hera means Splendor of Heaven, according to others, the Lady. Some think it approves her goddess of earth; others, goddess of the air; still others, for reasons by no means final, say that it signifies Protectress, and applies to Juno in her original function of moon-goddess, the chosen guardian of women, their aid in seasons of distress.

She is the type of matronly virtues and dignity. She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea, but was brought up by Oceanus and Tethys, in their dwelling in the remote west beyond the sea. Without the knowledge of her parents, she was wedded to Jupiter in this garden of the gods where ambrosial rivers flowed, and where Earth sent up in honor of the rite a tree of life, heavy with apples golden like the sunset.

Juno was the most worthy of the goddesses, the most queenly; ox-eyed , says Homer ; says Hesiod , golden-sandalled and golden-throned. Glorious, beyond compare, was her presence, when she had harnessed her horses, and driven forth the golden-wheeled chariot that Hebe made ready, and that the Hours set aside. Fearful, too, could be her wrath.

For she was of a jealous disposition, which was not happily affected by the vagaries of her spouse; and she was, moreover, prone to quarrels, self-willed, vengeful, proud, even on occasion deceitful. Once, indeed, she conspired with Minerva and Neptune to bind the cloud-compeller himself. More than once she provoked him to blows; and once to worse than blows, — for her lord and master swung her aloft in the clouds, securing her wrists in golden handcuffs, and hanging anvils to her feet.

To her the peacock and the cow were dear, and many a grove and pasture rejoiced her sacred herds. Minerva Athene , the virgin-goddess. She sprang from the brain of Jove, agleam with panoply of war, brandishing a spear, and with her battle-cry awakening the echoes of heaven and earth. She is goddess of the lightning that leaps like a lance from the cloud-heavy sky, and hence, probably, the name, Athene She is goddess of the storms and of the rushing thunder-bolt, and is, therefore, styled Pallas. She is also the goddess of war, rejoicing in martial music, and protecting the war-horse and the war-ship.

On the other hand, she is of a gentle, fair, and thoughtful aspect. She is eternally a virgin, the goddess of wisdom, of skill, of contemplation, of spinning and weaving, of horticulture and agriculture. She is protectress of cities, and was specially worshipped in her own Athens, in Argos, in Sparta, and in Troy. To her were sacrificed oxen and cows. The olive-tree, created by her, was sacred to her, and, also, the owl, the cock, the serpent, and the crow. Minerva Pallas. Mars Ares , 75 the war-god, son of Jupiter and Juno. The meaning of the name, Ares , is uncertain; the most probable significations are the Slayer , the Avenger , the Curse.

The Roman god of war, Mars, is the bright and burning one.