A dominant perception of whales can be reconstructed for Euro-American societies but it remains unclear what significance whales actually have on individuals. As part of a field research project, people in Germany, Japan, and Greenland were asked: "What does a whale mean to you? The diversity of narratives cannot be explained along cultural or national boundaries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the construction of collective cultural identity taking the indigenous peoples of the Greenlandic Inuit as an example.
During the fieldwork the interviewed villagers contrast this ideal image by identifying themselves with this Greenlandic collective identity simultaneously. The paper concludes that the musealization of indigeneity has both a restrictive effect on collective identity constructions and an enabling effect of the development of new rural life forms in a postcolonial society as Greenland.
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Since the reform came into effect, the realm of employment measures is dominated by so-called employment occasions Since the reform came into effect, the realm of employment measures is dominated by so-called employment occasions also 'One-Euro Jobs'. The article summarizes the findings from a cooperative study by the Institute for Employment Research IAB with the Institute of Sociology, University of Erlangen, which investigated the contexts and consequences of the introduction of employment occasions.
Subjects of the investigation were the handling of the instrument by the responsible authorities and organisations involved and the emergence of regional operation patterns and practices, as well as the importance of the form of institutionalisation, regarding the SGB II authorities in charge. Functions and consequences of employment occasions in establishments utilising the instrument were analysed. The results show considerable regional and local differences in the coming-about and utilisation of employment occasions.
Therein, the integration of recipients of unemployment benefit II ALG II into the first labour market is not always the primary objective. Altogether, the study leads to the conclusion that employment occasions have assumed a function of social integration by employment for people who, in spite of intensive promotion and strong incentives, have little chances on the labour market in a long-term perspective. Sociology , Activation And Workfare , and Labour market policy.
Other articles and publications. Unter der Leitung von Prof. Sabine Fromm und dem Lehrbeauftragten Dr. Andererseits fokussieren die Analysen auf die soziale Lage der Nutzer und deren Praxis der Tafelnutzung. Sowa, Frank : Meyer, John W. In: Thomas, George M. Constituting State, Society, and the Individual. Newbury Park: Sage, S. Methodologische Aspekte des Feldzugangs, Essen: oldib, S. Sowa : "Greenland. Sowa : "Inuit. Concept, objectives and work packages of an EU FP 7 project. Since , Europe has been shaken by an ongoing crisis. If relevant parts of populations are exposed to socioeconomic risks, it is a distinctive characteristic of European political ethics that they must not be left alone, but should be subject to support and solidarity by budget support policy, economic development policies and social policy at different levels.
But, in analogy with medical and psychological findings, some parts of the vulnerable population, although experiencing the same living conditions as others, are developing resilience, which in our context means that they perform social, economic and cultural practices and habits which protect them from suffer and harm and support sustainable patterns of coping and adaption. This resilience to socioeconomic crises at household levels is the focus of the project. It can consist of identity patterns, knowledge, family or community relations, cultural and social as well as economic practices, be they formal or informal.
For reasons of coping with the crisis without leaving the common ground of the implicit European social model or the unwritten confession to the welfare state under extremely bad monetary conditions in many countries, and for reasons of maintaining quality of life and improving social policy, it is a highly interesting perspective to learn from emergent processes of resilience development and their preconditions.
View on iab. This research project aimed to capture the interaction of the actors involved in shaping the local or municipal labour market policy and to comprehend which modes of application for which target is employed and which objectives are pursued regarding these networks.
To account for these issues, all relevant stakeholders which were involved in the creation of the programme of work opportunities were included in the qualitative research project. Thereby, the institution responsible for implementation e. We were interested in identifying the factors which empirically determine the orientation of one euro jobs in terms of social policy and labour market policy, which employment effects develop in companies and sectors and finally which job opportunities arise for long-term unemployed.
The research results show significant differences regarding the objective, the nature and extent of programme use and the design of work opportunities in the local networks. During the investigation period, a consistent use of this labour market policy instrument cannot be found. On closer inspection, this may not come as a surprise: By introducing work opportunities a universal tool for various fields of labour market and social policy has been created which was previously covered by different, problem and code-specific legal instruments. While the — politically significant — difference in the implementation of SGB II institutions ARGE, opting municipality or separate responsibility of tasks in order to create and form the framework for work opportunities turned out to be rather secondary, network exogenous factors economic conditions, the unemployment rate, size of the municipality and network endogenous aspects relation between SGB II institution and the organizations that use the measures, transparency of networks and practices, ways of negotiating were especially decisive for the differences in use and purpose of the SGB II-work opportunities.
On the one hand, objectives vary depending on these factors since they were typically either involved in social policy on the preservation of social integration or in labour market policy focused on the reintegration into employment. On the other hand, these differences in orientation furthermore led to diverse types of work opportunities and success ratings. In addition to the variety of practices regarding the arrangement of work opportunities overall patterns such as creaming and dumping processes are observed and the fact that employment opportunities alone are only limited in their impact on employment opportunities.
This paper investigates in-firm transitions from so-called ,one-euro-jobs' to regular employment. One-euro-jobs are an important workfare instrument of German labour market policy and are meant to increase employability of long term View on doku. The evaluation study of a pilot project entitled 'Activating the Unemployed, Supporting Labour Market Integration' of the Federal Employment Agency BA indicates that an increase in the number of caseworkers is effective in decreasing The evaluation study of a pilot project entitled 'Activating the Unemployed, Supporting Labour Market Integration' of the Federal Employment Agency BA indicates that an increase in the number of caseworkers is effective in decreasing the duration of unemployment.
In addition, it leads to an intensification of contact between caseworkers and the unemployed. The local employment agencies that participated were grouped into three categories according to the specific way the additional resources were used orientated to job-seekers; orientated to employers; orientated on internal processes. Despite specific differences, each of the three categories was on average successful. Verhandlungen des Sowa : The articulation of the Greenlandic culture in a globalised world more.
There was always the notion of 'exoticness' when talking about the Greenlandic culture or identity. The shift this paper likes to suggest is to reject all attempts of defining culture and collective identity as obligatory standards of a The shift this paper likes to suggest is to reject all attempts of defining culture and collective identity as obligatory standards of a postcolonial society.
Through processes of globalisation there are increasingly more contacts between cultures and the perception of the concept of culture is changing. We do not understand local people and their situation through fixing their practices as part of their culture or their single identity. In my opinion people in Greenland are aware of belonging to more than one culture and possessing more than one identity. On the contrary the articulation of culture through Greenlanders themselves reflects not a given fact but a marginal position in the global world system. Proceedings of the First International Ph.
Conference Presentations. After the whaling moratorium of the International Whaling Commission IWC came into force in , Japanese whaling activities such as small-type coastal whaling, scientific whaling in the Antarctic, driving whaling or hand-harpooning After the whaling moratorium of the International Whaling Commission IWC came into force in , Japanese whaling activities such as small-type coastal whaling, scientific whaling in the Antarctic, driving whaling or hand-harpooning continued on a reduced level. Being located in very remote rural areas, seaside communities found themselves involved in crisis concerning the economic, cultural, spiritual, social and moral development.
Results of the ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a contemporary whaling town in Japan show that whaling is still a part of the collective memory of the town: whalers and non-whalers construct their identities through the articulation of a strong attachment to the traditional whaling town and their ancestors. Inhabitants of the community experienced pressure from anti-whaling campaigns performed by global environmental groups and animal welfare organizations. Due to these experiences a new community identity emerged including whaling as a reflected articulation, a marker of a cultural boundary in relation to Euro-Americans, but also in relation to urban Japanese and other rural communities which are not whaling, securing the future of the town as whaling town.
Some of the founding fathers of sociology did research on specific maritime spaces. But also for other classical sociologists maritime spaces were not unfamiliar. Norbert Elias was interested in studying the careers of naval professions and intended to publish a book on that topic.
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Whereas maritime sociology is established in Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian and East-European countries today there is no such sociological sub-discipline in Germany. Even though there are German sociological or ethnographic studies on maritime issues concentrating on industrial sociological research and professional groups all efforts to professionalize maritime sociology in Germany failed. This pioneering work was not continued after the disintermediation of the working group quite in contrast to the developments in Poland.
In Poland a totally different development can be observed.
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Polish sociological studies on maritime issues go back at least to the interwar period; however these early publications lacked empirical studies. The proper research associated with maritime sociology perspective started after the Second World War when Poland acquired greater access to sea and maritime industry was to become an indispensable part of a recovering economy. Poznan, Gdansk and Szczecin became major academic centres of maritime sociology socjologia morska. The term for a new sociological sub-discipline was coined by Aleksander Matejko and Ludwik Janiszewski.
After years of lower interest in maritime sociology parallel to the decline of maritime industry during the years of Polish transformation one may observe its revival now. This reorientation had a considerable influence on the institutions of governmental handling of unemployment. During intensive ethnographic fieldwork in several local employment offices of the PES a mix of qualitative interviews, participant observation and document analysis were used to analyse the micro level where the abstract concept of activation must be interpreted and translated.
In contrast to existing research approaches, our ethnographic analysis delivers a new insight of a bureaucratic organization, and shows that job seekers and job placement officers are equally exposed to an individualized discipline. Therefore, the counseling of job placement officers discussed here arises from a genealogical perspective and constitutes a preliminary culmination of the disciplinary society in which warden and delinquents perceive themselves subjectively within the same tactics and are subject to a universal discipline of individuals.
Japanese coastal whaling has a long tradition dating back to the 16th century. Even today whaling is socially, culturally and economically important in the whaling towns as Taiji. However, the articulation of whaling as Japanese culture was not successful.
A comparison of the Japanese and the Greenlandic articulation strategies show: Despite of many similarities of the coastal whaling, the Greenlandic whaling is still categorized as aboriginal subsistence whaling. Thus, it is considered a legitimate cultural activity within a subsistence economy of the Greenlandic Inuit. However, all attempts to get Japanese whaling recognized as a cultural activity failed.
Japan as an industrial country left the stage of indigeneity behind which is reserved for indigenous peoples as the Greenlandic Inuit and is perceived by the world community as being too modern, too enlightened and too developed. In the past 20 years the trend towards New Public Management became prominent in labour market reforms all around Europe and had a deep impact on the transformation of welfare states.
In Germany the Public Employment Service PES as the central actor was transformed from a traditional bureaucratic institution to a managerial service provider which had an enduring effect on job-oriented placement activities and the placement professionals. The introduction of controlling, management by objectives, computer-supported placement activities, service orientation, customer segmentation, and action programs are typical features of an administrative managerial organization that follows business routines to increase efficiency and formal rationalization in the era of neo-liberalism.
Under the New Public Management regime the work of the placement personnel is structured differently: On the one hand the job placement professionals are labour market experts with an extended scope of action. In counselling interviews the job placement officers interact with job seekers and provide advice and monitor the individual behaviour of job seekers.
On the other hand all decisions of the placement professionals are checked by a close meshed accounting system and revised if they contradict the organizational business logic. The placement professionals are exposed to a systematic self-control which assesses the counselling and the placement of job seekers not only by technical and professional criteria, but always by the success of specific strategies along the internal organizational accounting system.
The contradictory effects of extensive accounting practices on job-placement officers and the organisation we will show in our paper. Sowa : Remote rural seaside communities in crisis? The invention of new rural life forms in a mixed subsistence-based economy in Greenland more. The introduction The introduction of a modern infrastructure as the supply of running water and electricity was too costly. Hence, many existing settlements closed. Other remote rural seaside communities were in crisis due to the loss of inhabitants who moved to the newly established towns.
Furthermore, more and more Greenlanders were not able to make a living from hunting and extend their occupation activities during the year. Most of the Greenlandic households make a living by a combination of subsistence activities of hunting and fishing, gainful occupation and transfer payments.
As the fieldwork in a small Greenlandic village shows the villagers develop new rural life forms in a postcolonial society. The current practice of hunting is no longer comparable to the traditional hunt. The consideration of the regulation of the international whaling as a form of global environmental regimes shows that the decisions within the International Whaling Commission are determined by a specific perception. Developed industrialized countries are not allowed to continue whaling due to cultural reasons. In a qualitative research project, interviews of retired whalers and town inhabitants were carried out in a contemporary whaling town in Japan.
This fieldwork shows that the moratorium had an enormous influence on small-type coastal whaling in remote rural areas in crisis. People in the community experienced pressure from anti-whaling campaigns performed by global environmental groups and animal welfare organizations. Due to these experiences people feel powerless and changed their self-perception of work, vocationalism and identity as whalers.
While whaling is decreasing the symbolization of whales are increasing as practices of resilience. In the past 20 years the trend towards New Public Management and activation became prominent in labor market reforms all around Europe and had an impact on the transformation of welfare states.
Within the new paradigms an ongoing Within the new paradigms an ongoing divergence of national labor market policy can be analyzed. Hence, the new discourses are embedded in and dependent on national labor market policy and institutional settings of the labor market actors. Furthermore legislative changes enabled a tightening of reasonable regulations for job seekers augmenting the pressure on the unemployed and led to tendencies of recommodification.
Our findings are the result of the ethnographically shaped participant observation of counseling interviews in several employment agencies. Our analysis of counseling interviews with recipients of unemployment benefit I Arbeitslosengeld I show that consultations assume a new quality under the conditions of an activating welfare and labor market regime especially for the group of elder jobseekers.
Translation issues occur because of the incommensurability of different logics of action between elder jobseekers and job placement officers. On the one hand due to their experience-based self-portrait, their strong relation to their former manual jobs and their habitualized job seeking strategies in a high flexibility demanding labor market, elder jobseekers cannot cope with the crises of unemployment and the new conditions of the enterprising self and the subjectification of work. On the other hand due to their new organizational rationality of efficiency and effectiveness and the exclusion effects of the labor market job placement officers have difficulties to integrate elder jobseekers in the labor market or to offer them suitable measures.
Activation policies are limited and marginalize elder jobseekers because there are no appropriate job offers and no means-tested support. We will show that the different frames of job seeking and work produce structurally induced misunderstandings or even incommensurabilities. If one takes the upcoming effects of the demographic change into consideration, this finding gets far more precarious than it already is.
As a local peripheral society, Greenland develops in a manner influenced by global structures. According to the neo-institutional theory of the world polity John W. Meyer , peripheral societies shift to the complete institutional Meyer , peripheral societies shift to the complete institutional apparatus of modern social organization.
However, the global model of indigeneity constructs indigenous people between nature and culture. If Greenland undergoes a transformation from a peripheral society to a modern state, it will probably lose its indigenous rights.
The paper concludes that the musealisation of indigeneity has both a restrictive effect on collective identity constructions and an enabling effect of the development of new rural life forms in a postcolonial society as Greenland. Location: Essen, Germany More Info: 9. Sowa : Vermittlungsprozesse und soziale Teilhabe more. Location: Erlangen, Germany More Info: Sowa : Indigenous Peoples and the institutionalization of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Greenland more. Location: Jena, Germany More Info: Sowa : Globalization as both pressure and opportunity: Kalaalimerngit and the specific Greenlandic Way of Life more.
Theoretical and Methodical Framework of a Dissertation Project more. Call for Papers. Figurationen der Wohnungsnot more. Robert K. Norbert Elias beschreibt mit dem Begriff der Figuration das komplexe Interdependenzgeflecht bzw. Netz-werk von Beziehungen, in dem Menschen in einer Gesellschaft agieren.
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Menschen ohne eigene Wohnung werden von uns nicht als sozial Ausgeschlossene und vereinsamte Eremiten gesehen. Vielmehr vertreten wir die Position, dass Menschen in ihrem Sein und ihrer Existenz immer gesellschaftsbezogen agieren. View online Published by Cambridge University Press, View online Published by Peter Lang, Edward John , View online Published by Harvard University Press, View online Published by Philipp von Zabern, .
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